UN Nelson Mandela Rules-https://www.un.org/en/un-chronicle/nelson-mandela-rules-protecting-rights-persons-deprived-liberty
Nelson Mandela-How did Nelson Mandela Survive 27 Years in Prison? A new collection of letters sheds light-https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2018/07/18/how-did-nelson-mandela-survive-27-years-in-prison-a-new-collection-of-letters-sheds-light/.
SolitaryConfinement.org- Mandela Rules Relating to Solitary Confinement-https://www.solitaryconfinement.org/un-nelson-mandela-rules
' Rule 43
1. In no circumstances may restrictions or disciplinary sanctions amount to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The following practices, in particular, shall be prohibited:
(a) Indefinite solitary confinement;
(b) Prolonged solitary confinement;
(c) Placement of a prisoner in a dark or constantly lit cell;
(d) Corporal punishment or the reduction of a prisoner’s diet or drinking water;
(e) Collective punishment.
2. Instruments of restraint shall never be applied as a sanction for disciplinary offences.
3. Disciplinary sanctions or restrictive measures shall not include the prohibition of family contact. The means of family contact may only be restricted for a limited time period and as strictly required for the maintenance of security and order.
For the purpose of these rules, solitary confinement shall refer to the confinement of prisoners for 22 hours or more a day without meaningful human contact. Prolonged solitary confinement shall refer to solitary confinement for a time period in excess of 15 consecutive days.
1. Solitary confinement shall be used only in exceptional cases as a last resort, for as short a time as possible and subject to independent review, and only pursuant to the authorization by a competent authority. It shall not be imposed by virtue of a
2. The imposition of solitary confinement should be prohibited in the case of prisoners with mental or physical disabilities when their conditions would be exacerbated by such measures. The prohibition of the use of solitary confinement and similar measures in cases involving women and children, as referred to in other United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice,28 continues to apply.
1. Health-care personnel shall not have any role in the imposition of disciplinary sanctions or other restrictive measures. They shall, however, pay particular attention to the health of prisoners held under any form of involuntary separation, including by visiting such prisoners on a daily basis and providing prompt medical assistance and treatment at the request of such prisoners or prison staff.
2. Health-care personnel shall report to the director, without delay, any adverse effect of disciplinary sanctions or other restrictive measures on the physical or mental health of a prisoner subjected to such sanctions or measures and shall advise the director if they consider it necessary to terminate or alter them for physical or mental health reasons.
3. Health-care personnel shall have the authority to review and recommend changes to the involuntary separation of a prisoner in order to ensure that such separation does not exacerbate the medical condition or mental or physical disability of the prisoner.
UN Expert on Torture-https://news.un.org/en/story/2011/10/392012-solitary-confinement-should-be-banned-most-cases-un-expert-says
UN Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment-.https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2020/02/united-states-prolonged-solitary-confinement-amounts-psychological-torture.
NY-Federal court dismisses NY state solitary confinement law challenge;https://spectrumlocalnews.com/nys/central-ny/politics/2022/06/21/federal-suit-challenging-state-solitary-confinement-rules-dismissed. June 2022.
PA-The majority of people in solitary are Black. Philly forefathers designed it that way.;https://www.inquirer.com/news/more-perfect-union-solitary-confinement-mental-health-racism-20220609.html. June 2022.
Canada-The Supreme Court’s ruling to end the death-in-prison penalty isn’t about the offender – it’s about our own moral code; https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-the-supreme-courts-ruling-to-end-the-death-in-prison-penalty-isnt/. May 2022.
CT-Lamont Signs Bill Limiting Solitary Confinement-https://ctnewsjunkie.com/2022/05/11/lamont-signs-bill-limiting-solitary-confinement/. May 2022.
OK-Viewpoint: Why solitary confinement should be banned practice in Oklahoma prisons-https://www.oklahoman.com/story/opinion/2022/05/08/viewpoint-solitary-confinement-should-banned-oklahoma-prisons/9631535002/. May 2022.
California/SHU (Special Housing Unit)-Court Finds Continued Systemic Constitutional Violations in California Prisons-https://ccrjustice.org/home/press-center/press-releases/court-finds-continued-systemic-constitutional-violations-california.2022.
Dennis Hope-27 Years in Solitary Confinement, Then Another Plea for Help in Texas-https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/14/us/supreme-court-solitary-confinement.html.2022.ps://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/14/us/supreme-court-solitary-confinement.html Hohttps://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/14/us/supreme-court-solitary-confinement.htmlpe, who has been held
PA-The link between race and solitary confinement in Pennsylvania prisons-https://www.cityandstatepa.com/politics/2022/02/link-between-race-and-solitary-confinement-pennsylvania-prisons/364224/.2022.
Ian Manuel-I Survived 18 Years in Solitary Confinement-https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/25/opinion/solitary-confinement-reform.html.2021.
Albert Woodfox-The scars of solitary: Albert Woodfox on freedom after 44 years in a concrete cell-https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/feb/19/albert-woodfox-interview-solitary-confinement-44-years.2021.
PA-Collaborative Research: Pennsylvania Solitary Confinement Study-https://iserp.columbia.edu/content/collaborative-research-pennsylvania-solitary-confinement-study.2021.
PA-It’s time to change solitary confinement in Pennsylvania-https://pasenate.com/its-time-to-change-solitary-confinement-in-pennsylvania/.2021.
CA/SHU-Who’s in SHU? A Survey of Solitary Confinement-https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2020/jul/1/whos-shu-survey-solitary-confinement. 2020.
CA/SHU-Report-Mental Health Consequences Following Release from Long-Term Solitary Confinement in California-https://ccrjustice.org/solitary-report.2017.
Prison Policy Initiative- Aging alone: Uncovering the risk of solitary confinement for people over 45-https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2017/05/02/aging_alone/.2017.
American Journal of Public Health-Older Prisoners and the Physical Health Effects of Solitary Confinement-https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5105008/.2016.
Russell Maroon Shoatz-AFTER 33 YEARS IN SOLITARY CONFINEMENT, FORMER BLACK PANTHER RUSSELL SHOATZ WILL HAVE HIS DAY IN COURT-https://solitarywatch.org/2016/03/11/after-33-years-in-solitary-confinement-former-black-panther-russell-shoatz-will-have-his-day-in-court/.2016.
CA/SHU-Landmark Agreement Ends Indeterminate Long-Term Solitary Confinement in California-https://ccrjustice.org/home/press-center/press-releases/landmark-agreement-ends-indeterminate-long-term-solitary.2015.
Race and Solitary Confinement-Black Power Incarcerated: Political Prisoners, Genocide, and the State-https://sdonline.org/issue/66/black-power-incarcerated-political-prisoners-genocide-and-state.2014.
CA/SHU-50 Days Without Food: The California Prison Hunger Strike-https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/08/50-days-california-prisons-hunger-strike-explainer/.2013.
CA/SHU- California/SHU-California Shu And The End Of The World-https://www.societyandspace.org/articles/the-california-shu-and-the-end-of-the-world. 2013.
ACLU Report-A DEATH BEFORE DYING; Solitary Confinement on Death Row-https://www.aclu.org/issues/prisoners-rights/solitary-confinement/death-dying?redirect=deathrowsolitary.2013.