UN Nelson Mandela Rules-https://www.un.org/en/un-chronicle/nelson-mandela-rules-protecting-rights-persons-deprived-liberty
Nelson Mandela-How did Nelson Mandela Survive 27 Years in Prison? A new collection of letters sheds light-https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2018/07/18/how-did-nelson-mandela-survive-27-years-in-prison-a-new-collection-of-letters-sheds-light/.
SolitaryConfinement.org- Mandela Rules Relating to Solitary Confinement-https://www.solitaryconfinement.org/un-nelson-mandela-rules
' Rule 43
1. In no circumstances may restrictions or disciplinary sanctions amount to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The following practices, in particular, shall be prohibited:
(a) Indefinite solitary confinement;
(b) Prolonged solitary confinement;
(c) Placement of a prisoner in a dark or constantly lit cell;
(d) Corporal punishment or the reduction of a prisoner’s diet or drinking water;
(e) Collective punishment.
2. Instruments of restraint shall never be applied as a sanction for disciplinary offences.
3. Disciplinary sanctions or restrictive measures shall not include the prohibition of family contact. The means of family contact may only be restricted for a limited time period and as strictly required for the maintenance of security and order.
For the purpose of these rules, solitary confinement shall refer to the confinement of prisoners for 22 hours or more a day without meaningful human contact. Prolonged solitary confinement shall refer to solitary confinement for a time period in excess of 15 consecutive days.
1. Solitary confinement shall be used only in exceptional cases as a last resort, for as short a time as possible and subject to independent review, and only pursuant to the authorization by a competent authority. It shall not be imposed by virtue of a
2. The imposition of solitary confinement should be prohibited in the case of prisoners with mental or physical disabilities when their conditions would be exacerbated by such measures. The prohibition of the use of solitary confinement and similar measures in cases involving women and children, as referred to in other United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice,28 continues to apply.
1. Health-care personnel shall not have any role in the imposition of disciplinary sanctions or other restrictive measures. They shall, however, pay particular attention to the health of prisoners held under any form of involuntary separation, including by visiting such prisoners on a daily basis and providing prompt medical assistance and treatment at the request of such prisoners or prison staff.
2. Health-care personnel shall report to the director, without delay, any adverse effect of disciplinary sanctions or other restrictive measures on the physical or mental health of a prisoner subjected to such sanctions or measures and shall advise the director if they consider it necessary to terminate or alter them for physical or mental health reasons.
3. Health-care personnel shall have the authority to review and recommend changes to the involuntary separation of a prisoner in order to ensure that such separation does not exacerbate the medical condition or mental or physical disability of the prisoner.
UN Expert on Torture-https://news.un.org/en/story/2011/10/392012-solitary-confinement-should-be-banned-most-cases-un-expert-says
UN Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment-.https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2020/02/united-states-prolonged-solitary-confinement-amounts-psychological-torture.
February 2023-Oakland, California
Summer 2022- North America-The Box "End of Isolation Tour"
NY-New York Prisons Are Blatantly Violating State Law Limiting Solitary Confinement-https://truthout.org/articles/new-york-prisons-are-blatantly-violating-state-law-limiting-solitary-confinement/. September 21, 2022.
CA-Advocates and Religious Groups Pressure CA Governor Newsom for Long Overdue Solitary Confinement Reform-https://www.davisvanguard.org/2022/09/advocates-and-religious-groups-pressure-ca-governor-newsom-for-long-overdue-solitary-confinement-reform/. September 19, 2022.
AL-New data show how often Alabama uses solitary confinement-https://wbhm.org/2022/new-data-show-how-much-alabama-uses-solitary-confinement/. September 15, 2022.
NY-Speaker Adams backs solitary confinement ban-https://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/public-safety/2022/09/12/speaker-adams-backs-solitary-confinement-ban. September 12, 2022.
NATL-Opinion Solitary confinement is torture. U.S. prisons should stop using it.-https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2022/09/06/solitary-confinement-torture-prison/. September 6, 2022.
MI-'It looks like a prison cell': Controversy sparks over seclusion rooms in Allegan Public Schools-https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/it-looks-like-a-prison-cell-controversy-sparks-over-seclusion-rooms-in-allegan-public-schools/ar-AA1198HZ. August 26, 2022.
CA-ICE Overusing Solitary Confinement in California, Lawmakers Worry-https://www.kqed.org/news/11923753/ice-overusing-solitary-confinement-in-california-lawmakers-worry. August 26, 2022.
National-Nearly 50,000 U.S. Prisoners Face Prolonged Solitary Confinement-https://www.democracynow.org/2022/8/25/headlines/nearly_50_000_us_prisoners_face_prolonged_solitary_confinement. August 25, 2022.
NY-These Labor Unions Are Fighting to Keep Solitary Confinement-These Labor Unions Are Fighting to Keep Solitary Confinement. August 16, 2022.
Washington Post-Opinion California has the chance to limit solitary confinement. It should take it.-https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2022/08/14/california-mandela-act-solitary-confinement/. August 14, 2022.
United Nations-Report: Prison violations in southern U.S. cause lasting harm to Blacks-https://www.daytonatimes.com/news/report-prison-violations-in-southern-u-s-cause-lasting-harm-to-blacks/article_99444f1e-1a1f-11ed-8330-97c68f256708.html. August 12, 2022.
CA-Will California restrict solitary confinement?-https://www.sfexaminer.com/news/crime/will-california-restrict-solitary-confinement/article_8ab6e070-b638-506a-a04b-8b7d4dd63ae2.html. August 12, 2022.
United Nations-HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS SUPPORT UNITED NATIONS IN CONFRONTING U.S. GOVERNMENT ON RACIALLY DISCRIMINATORY IMMIGRATION POLICIES-https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/human-rights-groups-support-united-nations-in-confronting-us-government-on-racially-discriminatory-immigration-policies-301605166.html. August 12, 2022.
Canada-Why Does Canada Still Allow Torture in Prisons? The consciousness of Canadians has caught up with what prisoners have known for years. Prolonged solitary confinement is torture.-https://www.commondreams.org/views/2022/08/10/why-does-canada-still-allow-torture-prisons. August 10, 2022.
CA-‘The Mandela Act’ Aims to Set Clear Definition of Solitary Confinement in CA Prisons-https://sacobserver.com/2022/08/the-mandela-act-aims-to-set-clear-definition-of-solitary-confinement-in-ca-prisons/. August 10, 2022.
CA-New bill aims to curtail the use of solitary confinement in California prisons-.kalw.org/kalw-news/2022-08-10/new-bill-aims-to-curtail-the-use-of-solitary-confinement-in-california-prisons. August 10, 2022.
Women-How Solitary Confinement Harms Women-https://msmagazine.com/2022/08/10/solitary-confinement-women-prison-death-row/. August 10, 2022.
Albert Woodfox-Albert Woodfox, held in solitary confinement for 43 years, dies aged 75-https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/aug/04/albert-woodfox-solitary-confinement-prison-angola-three. August 4, 2022.
IL-Chicago rallies to shut down Menard prison.http://www.fightbacknews.org/2022/8/4/chicago-rallies-shut-down-menard-prison. August 4, 2022.
CA- Action Item- All Saints Church- Petition-https://allsaints-pas.org/actions/faith-in-action-august-7-2022-end-solitary-confinement-hr-8048/- August 4, 2022
CA-California should pass Assembly Bill 2632 to limit solitary confinement-https://www.ocregister.com/2022/08/03/california-should-pass-assembly-bill-2632-to-limit-solitary-confinement/. August 3, 2022.
MA-Massachusetts prisoners are suing over solitary confinement-https://www.wgbh.org/news/local-news/2022/08/02/massachusetts-prisoners-are-suing-over-solitary-confinement. August 2, 2022.
CA-I spent more than a decade in solitary confinement. Trust me, it’s torture-https://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/openforum/article/solitary-confinement-torture-California-17337339.php. July 31, 2022.
GA-Akin to Torture’: For-profit immigrant prison singles out Black men after peaceful protest-https://www.splcenter.org/news/2022/07/29/immigrant-prison-black-men-solitary-confinement. July 29, 2022.
DC-D.C. Council Considers Bill Banning Solitary Confinement in City Jails. https://www.washingtoninformer.com/d-c-council-considers-bill-banning-solitary-confinement-in-city-jails/. July 27, 2022.
FL-Federal judge denies class action lawsuit against Florida Department of Corrections over use of solitary confinement.https://www.cltampa.com/news/federal-judge-denies-class-action-lawsuit-against-florida-department-of-corrections-over-use-of-solitary-confinement-13871839. July 27, 2022.
Jack Powers-After Two Decades in Solitary, This Is His First Day Out-https://www.nytimes.com/2022/07/26/opinion/jack-powers-solitary-tuesday-afternoon.html. July 26, 2022.
NY-Solitary confinement persists at Rikers Island, just by different names. https://gothamist.com/news/solitary-confinement-persists-at-rikers-island-just-by-different-names. July 25, 2022.
American Society of Criminology-Rates of solitary confinement of incarcerated people with mental illness three times higher than those without mental illness. https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/959791. July 25, 2022.
Columbia University/Justice Lab-The Trials of Solitary Confinement Columbia’s Justice Lab takes aim at a controversial practice.-https://magazine.columbia.edu/article/trials-solitary-confinement. Spring/Summer 2022.
UK-UK prisoners ‘traumatised’ by Covid solitary confinement, study says-https://www.theguardian.com/society/2022/jul/20/covid-solitary-confinement-inflamed-uk-prisons-mental-health-crisis-study. July 20, 2022.
July 14, 2022-"Torture in Our Name: A Moral Call to End Solitary Confinement," hosted by Religions for Peace USA- on-line event requires advance registration, Please join us for a film screening and discussion about how survivors of solitary confinement and religious communities are working together to abolish torture once and for all. Zoom registration is required but is complimentary. Religions for Peace (RFP) USA [RFPUSA] envisions a nation in which people of faith and goodwill live together in respect and mutual support, creating paths to peace and justice. Learn more about the work of RFPUSA and our faith and interfaith partners at rfpusa.org.
TX-In Texas, solitary confinement is The New Jim Crow. https://sfbayview.com/2022/07/in-texas-solitary-confinement-is-the-new-jim-crow/. July 7, 2022.
National-Solitary confinement should be abolished in American prisons, jails-https://www.ocregister.com/2022/07/03/solitary-confinement-should-be-abolished-in-american-prisons-and-jails/. July 3, 2022.
A New Play Imagines The End of Isolation for All Incarcerated People-https://truthout.org/articles/a-new-play-imagines-the-end-of-isolation-for-all-incarcerated-people/. July 2022.
PA-Local group seeks to reform use of solitary confinement at Lackawanna County Prison-https://news.yahoo.com/local-group-seeks-reform-solitary-. July 2022.
Nat'l-Solitary Confinement should be abolished in American prisons, jails-https://www.ocregister.com/2022/07/03/solitary-confinement-should-be-abolished-in-american-prisons-and-jails/. July 2022.
June 2022-North Carolina
NY-At the Last Minute, City Officials Put Brakes on Alternative to Solitary Confinement at Rikers-https://www.thecity.nyc/2022/6/30/23190193/rikers-changing-solitary-to-rmas. June 2022.
NY-Federal court dismisses NY state solitary confinement law challenge;https://spectrumlocalnews.com/nys/central-ny/politics/2022/06/21/federal-suit-challenging-state-solitary-confinement-rules-dismissed. June 2022.
PA-The majority of people in solitary are Black. Philly forefathers designed it that way.;https://www.inquirer.com/news/more-perfect-union-solitary-confinement-mental-health-racism-20220609.html. June 2022.
NY-“Mental Health Units” in Prison Are Solitary Confinement by Another Name, Activists Say-https://truthout.org/articles/mental-health-units-in-prison-are-solitary-by-another-name-activists-say/. June 2022.
May 2022-New York
Canada-The Supreme Court’s ruling to end the death-in-prison penalty isn’t about the offender – it’s about our own moral code; https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-the-supreme-courts-ruling-to-end-the-death-in-prison-penalty-isnt/. May 2022.
CT-Lamont Signs Bill Limiting Solitary Confinement-https://ctnewsjunkie.com/2022/05/11/lamont-signs-bill-limiting-solitary-confinement/. May 2022.
OK-Viewpoint: Why solitary confinement should be banned practice in Oklahoma prisons-https://www.oklahoman.com/story/opinion/2022/05/08/viewpoint-solitary-confinement-should-banned-oklahoma-prisons/9631535002/. May 2022.
California/SHU (Special Housing Unit)-Court Finds Continued Systemic Constitutional Violations in California Prisons-https://ccrjustice.org/home/press-center/press-releases/court-finds-continued-systemic-constitutional-violations-california.2022.
Dennis Hope-27 Years in Solitary Confinement, Then Another Plea for Help in Texas-https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/14/us/supreme-court-solitary-confinement.html.2022.ps://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/14/us/supreme-court-solitary-confinement.html Hohttps://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/14/us/supreme-court-solitary-confinement.htmlpe, who has been held
PA-The link between race and solitary confinement in Pennsylvania prisons-https://www.cityandstatepa.com/politics/2022/02/link-between-race-and-solitary-confinement-pennsylvania-prisons/364224/.2022.
February 2022- California
February 2022-Stanford University
Marshall Project-Inside the Underground Economy of Solitary Confinement-https://www.themarshallproject.org/2022/02/18/inside-the-underground-economy-of-solitary-confinement. February 18, 2022.
Ian Manuel-I Survived 18 Years in Solitary Confinement-https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/25/opinion/solitary-confinement-reform.html.2021.
Albert Woodfox-The scars of solitary: Albert Woodfox on freedom after 44 years in a concrete cell-https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/feb/19/albert-woodfox-interview-solitary-confinement-44-years.2021.
PA-Collaborative Research: Pennsylvania Solitary Confinement Study-https://iserp.columbia.edu/content/collaborative-research-pennsylvania-solitary-confinement-study.2021.
PA-It’s time to change solitary confinement in Pennsylvania-https://pasenate.com/its-time-to-change-solitary-confinement-in-pennsylvania/.2021.
CA/SHU-Who’s in SHU? A Survey of Solitary Confinement-https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2020/jul/1/whos-shu-survey-solitary-confinement. 2020.
CA/SHU-Report-Mental Health Consequences Following Release from Long-Term Solitary Confinement in California-https://ccrjustice.org/solitary-report.2017.
Prison Policy Initiative- Aging alone: Uncovering the risk of solitary confinement for people over 45-https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2017/05/02/aging_alone/.2017.
American Journal of Public Health-Older Prisoners and the Physical Health Effects of Solitary Confinement-https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5105008/.2016.
Russell Maroon Shoatz-AFTER 33 YEARS IN SOLITARY CONFINEMENT, FORMER BLACK PANTHER RUSSELL SHOATZ WILL HAVE HIS DAY IN COURT-https://solitarywatch.org/2016/03/11/after-33-years-in-solitary-confinement-former-black-panther-russell-shoatz-will-have-his-day-in-court/.2016.
CA/SHU-Landmark Agreement Ends Indeterminate Long-Term Solitary Confinement in California-https://ccrjustice.org/home/press-center/press-releases/landmark-agreement-ends-indeterminate-long-term-solitary.2015.
Race and Solitary Confinement-Black Power Incarcerated: Political Prisoners, Genocide, and the State-https://sdonline.org/issue/66/black-power-incarcerated-political-prisoners-genocide-and-state.2014.
CA/SHU-50 Days Without Food: The California Prison Hunger Strike-https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/08/50-days-california-prisons-hunger-strike-explainer/.2013.
CA/SHU- California/SHU-California Shu And The End Of The World-https://www.societyandspace.org/articles/the-california-shu-and-the-end-of-the-world. 2013.
ACLU Report-A DEATH BEFORE DYING; Solitary Confinement on Death Row-https://www.aclu.org/issues/prisoners-rights/solitary-confinement/death-dying?redirect=deathrowsolitary.2013.